Clashes in the West of Ivory Coast, already forty-one (41) dead among ivorian soldiers and UN troops coalition

A few days ago, we published an article in which we noticed the differents figures gave by the Ivorians officials as regards the balance sheet of the fights between the EX-FRCI and the coalition UNOCI-FRCI (ivorian army) . As we pointed out, the only number remained constant since last Friday, is the number of blue berets fallen on the field: sept (7). They are.

– Lt. Sahabi Dan Sanda, aged 49, married and father of three;

– Sergeant Hassane Amadou Sanda, 39, married and father of four;

– Sergeant Housseini Mounkaila, 32, married and father of two;

– Sergeant Haboubacar Djibo, 27, single;

– Corporal Soumaila Oubandawaki Na Allah, 27, married;

– Corporal Mahamadou Maman, 41, married and father of three;

– Private First Class, Boubacar Abdou Zoranto, 26, married.

Ce diaporama nécessite JavaScript.

As for the number of dead FRCI, their number varies according to day. As an example, in the daytime after the attack that is on Saturday, June 09th, 2012, seven published newspapers, none mentioned killed civilians, all except SOIR-INFO (who spoke about 3 deaths FRCI) spoke about 5 deaths (provisional assessment) among the FRCI.

But yesterday the newspapers close to the power of Ouattara began to speak about killed civilians and miraculously revised in downwards the losses among the FRCI. We so passed according to the newspaper from three ( 3 ) civilians to eight ( 8 ) killed civilians, and one (1) to three ( 3 ) killed FRCI. This tendency to want to mask the reality of the facts hides badly.

From Friday, June 08th, 2012 to the night of Monday, June 11th, the coalition FRCI-UNOCI underwent hard lapels in the West of Ivory Coast. According to one of our sources which wanted to remain anonymous, it would have had forty one ( 41 ) soldiers dressed in uniforms of the UNOCI among the soldiers fallen in the West.

These forty one soldiers in uniforms of United Nations were not naturally all peacekeepers. Because as we already announced it in a publication of yesterday, several members of FRCI go to the front dressed in uniforms of United Nations. And with the complicity of certain unreliable officials of the UNO in Ivory Coast who supply them uniforms and everything that goes with it.

It is the case to underline that the aggressors in TAI forest aware of this small detail decided to do not make district. Blue Berets or not, their only objective would be not to make approach what they consider as their private property by intruders.

Having the complete mastery of the terrain, the fighters of TAI forest not venture far from their bases, preferring to wait on the spot the allies of yesterday became enemy today. How long they can still resist? One beginning of answer, we shall have it certainly after the offensive which will begin on Friday, offensive led by the FRCI with the support of the LICORNE forces and blue berets of United Nations. But if we held in both Vietnam Wars, in the course of which hidden in their jungle Vietminh had managed to undo alternately the French and the Americans, we can already plan for the new war of TAI forest for the long months of bitter fighting to chase away the former FRCI today opposite to their former companions in arms.

Meanwhile the troops of United Nations having managed to escape the fighters of TAI, would have taken refuge in Daloa, awaiting for reinforcements which as already said, should begin to arrive on Friday.

ACC-Communication

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Identified as War Criminals by the UN Security Council, yet associated with the UN troops in Cote d’Ivoire

We still remember the vast Kony 2012 campaign launched to openly condemn Joseph Kony, leader of the ugandan rebellion indicted for « recruiting child soldiers ». For all those crimes, Joseph Kony who was indicted for crimes against humanity is subjected to an international bench warrant issued by the ICC, (International Criminal Court) and hundred of american military advisers are currently in Uganda for his arrest.

But unfortunately for Africa, before the world could discover Joseph Kony, the UN Security Counsil has already identified some others war criminals in Africa. Thus with regard to the war in Cote d’Ivoire for example, on February 7, 2006. the Security Council established, in a document, a list of three people indicted for various crimes to whom sanctions should be imposed (Click here to see document ). Among those names was the one of Fofié Martin Kouakou whose list of crimes for which he was charged with by the UN Security council could make one considers Joseph Kony a simple cattle thief. The Security Council charged caporal Fofié Martin Kouakou commander of the Korhogo region rebel Forces, with the following crimes:

  • recruiting and using child soldiers

  • abductions

  • imposition of forced labour

  • sexual abuse of women

  • arbitrary arrests extra-judicial killings, contrary to human rights conventions and to international humanitarian law .

  • obstacle to the action of the IWG , UNOCI, French Forces and to the peace process as defined by resolution 1633 (2005).

So, from April 13, 2011, it was that war criminal of Allassane Ouattara’s ivorian rebellion which has plunged the Ivory Coast into bloodshed since 2002, whom UN and french officials agreed to be Mr. Laurent Gbagbo’s jail-keeper. It is necessary to recall that president Laurent Gbagbo had been overthrown by a military coup d’etat executed by the French Force Licorne and the UN troops to the benefit of Allassane Ouattara’s rebellion. It is on board of a UN chopper that President Laurent Gbagbo will be deported from Abidjan to the rebels’ historical stronghold of Korhogo in the North of the country. Those UN troops as seen in this picture below will directly delivered their package to the war criminal Fofié Martin Kouakou, who will subject him to the worst possible and imaginable abuses.

We then learn from a 100 pages document (Here in french ) submited on may 24th 2012 to the ICC juges by Laurent Gbagbo defense that:

“The medical expert, appointed by the defense shortly after President Gbagbo’s arrival at The Hague, makes clear in his in his report on March 31, 2012 that President Gbagbo’s detention conditions << must be considered as a type of ill-treatment so serious as physical abuses and torture>>. He clarifies that “solitary confinement is usually used to break the prisoners” 6 (cf. appendix 8). It adds that the alarming health of President Gbagbo results from a treatment which <<must be considered as the ones of ill treatments and even torture>> “

Perhaps to show Corporal Fofié Martin Kouakou his gratitude for all he has inflicted to President Gbagbo, Allassane Ouattara who has been ruling the Ivory Coast since April 11, 2011, rewarded him with the rank of Commander on August 3, 2011.The promotion granted to a war criminal will be furthermore condemned by Human Right Watch in a document published on August 5, 2011. (here  )

Meanwhile, on May 2, 2011 a former secretary general of the United Nations, in the person of Kofi Annan along with the old Nobel Prize of peace Desmond Tutu – both born-again military putsch certifiers on behalf of the oligarchy which controls the world will visite President Gbagbo in Korhogo. In this pictures published by the Ouattara’s men, one recognizes the corporal Fofié Kouakou, who at all time, was breathing down the neck, of this democratically elected president in 2000 and 2010 and whom Allassane Ouattara and his war criminals comrades considered their worst enemy.


How do you explain that a UN Security Council identified war criminal as such who was never acquitted by any national or international jurisdiction could earn that much trust from the UN troops?

What justifies that the United Nations chase for Joseph Kony, while its troops are fighting side by side with Fofié Martin Kouakou, a well-known war criminal?

How the United Nations which should be the guarantors of world security and justice, could entrust a war criminal who did not hesitate to recruit child soldiers, to rape women, and had committed extra judicial Killings; the safekeeping of a prisoner? Etc. etc.

Too many questions and very few answers. Undoubtedly because in Ivory Coast, the so called international community driven by egoistic and self-interests has gone too far to the point where common morals could hardly comprehend and tolerate.

ACC-Communication

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Is President Gbagbo tribalist?

Mamadou Koulibaly, in a Beninese newspaper: « We could have continued the momentum as a major party, if tribalism had not come to gangrene the FPI at point of losing President Gbagbo who turned on to become a tribalist ».

So then resolutely playing the detractors of a regime that would had brought him to the highest spheres of the Republic, Mamadou Koulibaly who was the interim chair of the FPI, the party which disclosed him to the Ivorians and which he left in July 11, 2011, has been prevalent in many national and international press, criticizing the regime he has served until the end. Among the evils he has regularly pointed, is tribalism, which is obviously an evil that must be fought without any concession to the survival of the young Ivorian nation. However, this can be highlighted Gbagbo regime with this tare ? Until then, that those who instruct the trial brought against Gbagbo tribalism said that based on their absolute discretion, we modestly tried to review the in recent years to allow visiblity in the management of the men nominated in various appointments by President Gbagbo and the logic of resource allocation in the country, not to mention the nature of support enjoyed by his regime.

Pushed very hard on the issue of tribalism in the press of the opposition then and the French press, and more specifically accused of « bétéisé » Republican Army, President Gbagbo, in a press conference on Mars 02 2003-Matin reported by Fraternité-Matin of 03/03/2003, had managed to confound his critics by showing the dashboard hierarchies of command FANCI (National Armed Forces of Cote d’Ivoire) and the Gendarmerie Nationale as follows:

« In command of FANCI, there are 15 Krou, 20 akans, and 14 constituents in the chain of command FANCI. They are distributed in 8 Bete, 5 Baule, Agni 8, 2 Atties, 5 various Akan (Adioukrou, Ebrié …) Yacoubas 5, 3 Senufo, Malinke 5, and 1 Koulango.
In the hierarchy of command of the gendarmerie, there are 31 different Akan Akan including 18 and 13 Baoulés, 2 guérés, 4 bétés, 4 Gouros, 6 Sénoufos, 1 Mahouka et 4 Yacoubas. »  »

The thesis of tribalism is therefore not supported here, we will look elsewhere.

« Under the military transition, he attended the two governments respecting the geopolitics in the list of those who were defending the standard of the FPI. Mr. Amani N’Guessan, Hubert Oulaye, Mamadou Koulibaly, Affi N’Guessan, Leon Monnet and Sery Bailly had the honor and privilege to be chosen. « (03/03/2003’s Frat-Mat /)
« In his last government of 36 ministers before the attempted coup of September 19, 2002, there were 20 akans, 6 bétés et 7 northerners. « (03/03/2003’s Frat-Mat /).

In his presidential office, he agreed to put in strategic positions people from diverse backgrounds who not only fought but were for some of them, members of opposition parties which have never quit. And were appointed people like Paul N’zi David, a member of the PDCI and chief of staff and Jacques Anoma, director of finance or Nyamien Yao, minister under Bedie and member of the PDCI, and so on who have rubbed shoulders with President Gbagbo’s entourage, some people like Sarata Toure, Eugene Allou Wanyou, Koné Aboubakar, Felix Tyéoulou, Desire Tagro, Gervais Coulibaly and many others. So we went through a presidential cabinet composed of people from different ethnic groups.

With regard to the financial authorities who are the object of envy for the first time in the history of our Republic, a president, Laurent Gbagbo in this case, had made a call for applications to recruit the first responsibles. This had given us as general manager of the treasury Diby Koffi Konan Gnamien General Director of Customs, and Feh Kesse, Genera Director l of Taxes. So not a single person of his ethnic group where, under Houphouet-Boigny, for example, we had the right to Amani Goly taxes and Koffi Angoua to Customs, people from his ethnic group who had each more than two decades in their positions, and where now the three personalities in these positions are from the north.

Gbagbo, who had once said that « the relationship is not a job » even completely ignored the members of his ethnic group in the allocation of posts of presidents of institutions. So we had:

Mamadou Koulibaly, president of the National Assembly,

Laurent Dona Fologo, president of the Economic and Social

Youssouf Koné, Chancellor of the National Order,

Tia Koné, president of the Supreme Court,

Yapon Yapo Paul Yao the Yao N’Dré Presidents of the Constitutional Council.

Thus it is clear here that these positions are predominantly occupied by personalities from the north. At the expense of which would be operated on the tribalism which he would be guilty?

Even at the level of justice, where some politicians deliberately ensure impunity by placing their men, one could cite to discuss the most to the reign of Gbagbo, Raymond Tchimou public prosecutor in the Justice civil and miltary justice Ange Kessi, who today does not have a relent in his area to hunt FDS that marked their loyalty to Gbagbo.

Even the distribution of appointments to the heads of major state companies did not escape this desire not to appear as a tribal President. Ernest Dally Zabo LONACI with the DG as Assistant of Assoum Bamba, Marcel Gossio the Autonomous Port of Abidjan, Amara Touré to CIDT (Textiles), Desire Dallo at the Port of San Pedro, Philippe Attey to SOTRA, Sylvanus Kla to ATCI (Telecommunications). And we pass.

This shows that the smear campaign was based solely on the manifest of bad faith of those who are determined to deny the reality of an inclusive policy. For what purpose?

But maybe tthese detractors did not want to see in important positions, , people from the same ethnic group that President Gbagbo, even if they had the skills?
Thus, their criticisms were also focused on Desire Tagro, interior minister and member of the same ethnic group as President Gbagbo, and again sought to portray him as a tribalist of the worst kind. His denials are no longer sufficient, he had to make a statement to give details of appointments in the department that everyone can enjoy here:

Accused of « bétéïser ‘Administration – The Interior Ministry responds to the » Patriot  »
Under the appointments of Inspectors General, Deputy Inspectors, Deputy Managing Directors and Directors at Central Department of the Interior, one publication has suggested that the Minister would have promoted Desire Tagro that people of the same ethnicity as him .

To allow the Ivorian citizens and other well-meaning people to know the truth, the table attached to this release shows the statistical study to see which provides the distribution of posts by ethnicity and is summarized as follows:
– Total number of Inspectors General: 02 with no Bété ;;

– Total number of Inspectors General: 03 with no Bété ;;

– Total number of Inspectors: 29 including 02 Bétés ;

– Total number of Directors: 04 with 1 Bété ;;

– Total number of Deputy Directors-General: 05 not including a single Bété ;;

– Total number of Directors Central: 29 8.Bétés

The Interior Minister thanked the publication for giving him the opportunity to show the way forward.

The Deputy Chief of Staff in charge of Territorial Administration,
Acting Spokesman of the Ministry

Interior

Zoguéhi Gnahoua Auguste

Civil Administrator

End of statement.

And if we continue, we could talk about such young patriots in that we wanted to see a tribal militia. For tribalism can be characterized by the nature of support. It can be treated as such if the tribalist support it enjoys is that its exclusive single tribe. We will see here that these youth leaders called Patriotic come from all regions of Côte d’Ivoire

Charles Blé Goudé, Richard Dakouri, Yves Dibopieu, Idriss Ouattara, Konaté Navigué, Joël Tiéhi, Serges Kassi, Watchard Kédjébo, Touré Moussa Zeguen, Damana Adia Picass, Ahoua Stallone, Eugène Djué and Serges Koffi come from all parts of the Coast Ivory.

Finally, one might also speak of the decentralization policy that also addresses the concern of President Gbagbo of not capturing the country’s resources for the benefit of its region of origin, but to distribute them equitably to enable a balanced development of the Ivory Coast . Tribalism, not only focus on people from his home region to the detriment of others, it also preferred its own region at the expense of other regions. So we cannot blame President Gbagbo. On the contrary, we should honor him even as he not only has not made the choice to privilege his region or his hometown, but it has, as aresponsible politician, continued to develop the political capital Yamoussoukro so that the huge investments that had already been made by the country are not lost. Bédié had acted differently by moving without telling the political capital to his home in Daoukro.

Moreover, the Ivorian who understood that he had an inclusive policy on him as well given the electoral map in the first round of the last presidential election showed that he had a national electorate. 11 regions out of 19 won by Gbagbo. Do I Need to say more?

No, President Gbagbo is not tribalist. Besides, we only has to see those around him again, to their peril, when he was captured by the French military forces and handed over to Alassane Ouattara. They were from everywhere and just check the list of political prisoners in the north to see .

The last word is that if Gbagbo had gone at the end of last term that the people of Côte d’Ivoire has granted him, he would not have been succeeded by someone from his tribe because he had positioned one in this case, unlike other. And that’s not all!
tribalist come on?

Alexis Gnagno
ACC-Communication

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What has President Laurent Gbagbo brought to Islam…

It should be remembered what President Gbagbo has done for the Muslim community. The contribution of President Laurent Gbagbo to promote Islam is enormous. Since coming to power, Islam has benefited more than other religions. The grant and the construction of mosque, he did it. Every year, hundreds of tickets are made available to the Muslim community for the completion of Hajj. With him the number has tripled. The management of the pilgrims of 2006 called Pilgrimage 2006 bis 2007. The pilgrimage had become a real and great stock in trade by some associations and some Islamic leaders. The culmination, 2000 pilgrims remained in Côte d’Ivoire.

President Laurent Gbagbo has supported in 2007 by offering the best pilgrimage of all time so far. The relative decrease in the cost of the pilgrimage in Côte d’Ivoire (1.5 million CFA francs) compared to other countries in the subregion. Since in these countries, the cost is between two million and three million CFA francs. The management of several state institutions by Muslims. Not to mention the food distribution and food to Muslim religious leaders during the month of Ramadan. And sheep for the feast of Tabaski. Award of two ambulances, two minibuses for the pilgrims of 2005. Membership of the Ivory Coast to organizations and international Islamic institutions OIC (Organization of the Islamic Conference), CEN-SAD (Community of Sahel-Saharan States), ISESCO (Islamic Organization for Education, Science and Culture), Bid (IDB). Note that this bank financed the extension of Highway north to Yamoussoukro, creating a ministry of worship, one of whose objectives was to facilitate the pilgrimage. He made contributions to a certain level.

At the institutional level, we have the institutional presentation of the wishes of the new year. Under the regime of President Houphouet and President Bedie, only the Apostolic Nuncio Catholic Christian denomination sent greetings to the heads of state. With President Laurent Gbagbo, including many religious Muslims have their vows, the head of state. Thus fulfilling the wishes of the Muslim community. The conflict that pitted you a long time with President Idriss Kone INC had negatively impacted the Muslim community. Every effort is endogenous (within the Muslim community both nationally and internationally had no effect in this crisis, he soothed. It is indeed President Laurent Gbagbo in 2009 at the presidency Palace .

I must say that when President Laurent Gbagbo was in the opposition find it abnormal that Ivorian Muslims start searching for their visas in neighboring countries in order to go on the pilgrimage. Thus, an Embassy of the Ivory Coast was opened in Riyadh. When he took power, he initiated an Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Côte d’Ivoire. Other performances are open. Diplomatic representations with Islamic countries Embassy of Ivory Coast in Iran, Iranian Embassy in Côte d’Ivoire, Ivory Coast Consulate in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) to facilitate the pilgrimage to Mecca, not to mention the strengthening of cooperation with the Libyan Islamic Libya, strengthening cooperation with the UAE coming of the Emir of Qatar in 2001 for the development of religious schools and Islamic University in Côte d’Ivoire, the introduction of the Heritage National Museum of Islamic Civilization in Côte d’Ivoire. One thing to be welcomed at President Laurent Gbagbo is the removal of the residence or stay card.

Control of the residence card was done in the vicinity and in the mosques. The creation of the card was the door open to all social dysfunction. Not to mention the abuse of the Muslim community domestic and foreign. It is a sociological reality, we are against anyone. Unlike Bédié, the National Assembly a Malinke (Koulibaly), the prime minister an Akan (Affi), (Fologo), a northerner Senufo, the Chancery, a Malinke (Youssouf Koné) … He gave political power to Muslims . better the national assembly’s President his runner is a Muslim. This is Mamadou Koulibaly. Never, a northerner and a Muslim was the National Assembly and heir in Ivory Coast since the time of Houphouet. It was set to make it impossible. He gave everything to Muslims.

The right to religious information is required with it. Some religious leaders, often through our radio address about the nature insurgency against his regime. President Gbagbo does not require the restriction or closure of programs of radio. in 2005, there were technical and logistical support to pilgrims. They offered two mini buses. Even countries that are predominantly Muslim have never been to their pilgrims. It must be said under President Gbagbo, the number of Islamic association has drastically increased. This is unprecedented in this country. Under Gbagbo, was the military chaplaincy. While the decree on the military chaplaincy has existed since 1969. It has never been implemented.

Gbagbo today, the Defence Forces Security and live their faith. From this, we say that President Laurent Gbagbo is the godfather and protector, the promise of Islam in Ivory Coast. We have an ethical duty, to restore the moral truth. No regime has done what he did to the Muslim community. His contribution to the development of Islam is an exponential input. This is unprecedented. Laurent Gbagbo has made an invaluable contribution to Islam. We can not even identify it.

In addition, Islam is justice, many people have lied for their selfish interest. We must therefore restore truth and justice. Islam is the recognition, a hadeeth says that he who is not grateful to his neighbor can not be thankful to God. All Muslims and all believers and even aspiring to God must be in gratitude to President Laurent Gbagbo. For he has strengthened the religious freedom of any religion that is. Such a person must have the support of our community in these difficult times through which it passes.

This is not for the facts listed, I ask you dear Sheikh, asking Alassane Ouattara to release him. And his wife and other executives of PML. Excellence, understand my highest consideration.

Abou Cisse

freedom fighter, a founding member of the RDR

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BLOODY FIGHTING IN THE WESTERN PART OF CÖTE D’IVOIRE

 
According to information in our possession, they have been intense fightings since last weekend, between unknown armed groups and Ouattara’s militia FRCI.
Former governmental forces (loyal to Gbagbo) sent there, but having not shown their determination to fight, it was necessary to send a reinforcement of Ouattara militia.

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President Laurent Gbagbo is in very good state of mental and physical health in Korhogo

President Laurent Gbagbo, contrary to official statements of Alassane Ouattara and his associates, is not held at the official residence of State of Korhogo. That everyone knows from the beginning, and the new president installed by coup d’etat at the head of our country has confessed on the set of French television TF1 in France last week on the sidelines of the presentation Houphouet-Boigny Prize for Peace Research. President Gbagbo is rather held in the residence of one of the highest authorities of the rebellion that split the country in two of 19 September 2002 to April 11, 2011, when the overthrow of the head of state by the French army. The information was confirmed to us yesterday afternoon by Ms. Rama Bourthoumieux Sophie, a Parisian lawyer of President Laurent Gbagbo and his wife, Simone Gbagbo Ehivet, locked it in Odienné (900 km from Abidjan in the northwest of Côte d’Ivoire). According to counsel, who has steadfastly refused to confirm the secret place of detention of his client, « for security reasons », the Parisian lawyers Jacques Verges, Marcel Ceccaldi, Roland Dumas herself and eventually win their because last Saturday, by dint of stress: they had access to President Gbagbo who with a very fruitful working session was held.

The Return of the Bearded…

According to counsel, the deposed president on April 11 is « very good mental and physical health. » Indeed, placed in appalling conditions of detention, President Gbagbo would let his hair grow and beard reminiscent of its hard and terrible years of struggle against the party under the late President Felix Houphouet-Boigny. « President Gbagbo is so strong in the head that does not at all what one dwells on his conditions of detention, » said Mr Bourthoumieux. Yet the founder of the Ivorian Popular Front (FPI) and the father of Ivorian democracy is held « in isolation is unacceptable, » added the lawyer. Who eventually confessed, under the barrage of our questions, « Yes, indeed, President Gbagbo is kept in a house too small and does not allow him to maintain his fitness. What our customers ask is space for a few hours of walking per week.  » In this regard, according to Mr. Rama Bourthoumieux Sophie, after remaining for months insensitive to this vital request of President Gbagbo, the regime installed by France would have expressed its willingness to allow access to the famous prisoner of Sarkozy having right to its exercise. But can we believe against Alassane Ouattara, the jailer whose first concern of some of the sulfur and political advisors thundering left to end the life of President Laurent Gbagbo of the most evil?

The « folder »
Now well-coordinated
Speaking of the working session that President Gbagbo had with M. Vergès, Ceccaldi, Dumas and herself, Ms. Bourthoumieux argues that good coordination is in place around the Ivorian head of state overthrown by France. Thus, President Gbagbo has confirmed the Minister Koné Katinan Justin in his role as spokesman. He gave firm instructions to his lawyers, who manage the legal part of his case, to work with the spokesperson who also enjoys the confidence of the president of the FPI, Pascal Affi N’Guessan, locked him in Bouna . In fact, yesterday, Sunday afternoon, Mr. Bourthoumieux flew to Accra where the Minister Koné Katinan waiting to interview a report those lawyers have had with President Gbagbo. Finally, counsel, communication activities are being prepared on through the coup carried out by the French army against which a plain yet secretly deposited the Court of hosts in Paris is making waves right now in the world. « Surely the Court of hosts who organized the flight, » says the lawyer who claims not hampered by a case that, sooner or later, would eventually come out.

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THE ORIGINS OF THE IVORIAN CRISIS

A- 1. Presentation of Côte d’Ivoire

The Republic of Côte d’Ivoire or Ivory Coast is a country in West Africa. It has an area of 322,462 square kilometres (124,503 sq mi), and borders the countries Liberia, Guinea (West), Mali, Burkina Faso (North) and Ghana (East); its southern boundary is along the Gulf of Guinea. The country’s population was estimated to be 20,617,068 in 2009 and 21,058,798 inhabitants in 2010.

Ivory Coast’s political and administrative capital is Yamoussoukro. Abidjan the biggest and the port city remains the economic capital. The official language is French, although many of the local languages are widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan,Anyin and Senufo. The currency is the CFA franc (like all former French colonies).

First French protectorate in 1843, Côte d’Ivoire was made a French colony in 1893; the country became independent in August 7th, 1960. Houphouet-Boigny, the first President of the Republic was to become Côte d’Ivoire’s father of independence.

The economy, mainly focused on the production of coffee and cocoa, had over the first two decades an exceptional boom, making the Ivory Coast a guiding light and the most prosperous of the West African States.

A- 2. Economic, political and appointment of Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara Houphouet Boigny in 1990

In addition to the economic crisis in the late 1970s and that continues to this day, the country is going through periods of turbulence in the social and political.

Following the social crisis of 1990 triggered by the austerity measures of structural djustment required by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, the Democratic Party of Ivory Coast decided to restore the multiparty provided for by Article 7 of the Ivorian constitution, by accessing the political demands of opposition groups including the FPI of Laurent Gbagbo, with a view to resolving the crisis.

In April 30th, 1990 the decision was made to install multi-party democracy and new political parties were approved May 31, 1990.

Politically, the emphasis of the social crisis claimed its first “victim”, the Minister of Economy of Houphouet, Mr. Moses Koumou Koffi (October 1989 – November 1990). This one is landed in this position and replaced by a senior IMF named Alassane Ouattara who also chairs an interdepartmental committee made necessary by the situation.

The latter is co-opted by the Director of the IMF at that time, French Michel CAMDESUS a mission to help the recovery of the Ivorian economy via the interdepartmental committee.

The appointment of the framework of the IMF with the blessing of France and Michel camdesus DG IMF will lead to protests from opposition parties newly licensed. The clamor of Burkinabe nationality Alassane Ouattara can be heard.

In the aftermath, President Houphouet creates a post of first minister (post that never existed in the Ivorian government organization) and appoints Alassane Ouattara. Opposition newspapers are putting added pressure especially when Alassane Ouattara was decorated in Cote d’Ivoire as an official of Burkina Faso (Jeune Afrique).

To accept the new prime minister by the Ivorians, the PDCI, the party of Houphouet-Boigny began a campaign to explain throughout the Ivory Coast under the leadership of Mr. Laurent Dona Fologo.

An Ivorian village is attributed to Alassane Ouattara, KONG in the Northern part of Ivory Coast.

Ivory Coast will experience the application of structural adjustment program of the IMF in full force with enormous damage in the social and economic fabric. Ivorian teachers (from kindergarten to higher education) will pay the price like other Ivorian officials.

The salaries of all new teachers in Côte d’Ivoire are punctured by half. This is the beginning of the downward spiral of school Ivorian.

In addition, a widespread plan of privatization of state enterprises was launched. Almost all state enterprises in Côte d’Ivoire were being privatized in unclear circumstances and sold at a nominal price, to French groups only. Bouygues, already in construction, is granted water and electricity,

France Telecom phone, etc …

In September 1990, presidential elections was to oppose Houphouet-Boigny and Socialist leader Laurent Gbagbo. However, this democratization is not transparent enough to result in an election with no doubt.

A-3 Succession of Houphouet: 1st coup attempt by Alassane Ouattara

Houphouet-Boigny became increasingly feeble and died in 1993.

The Constitution organizes the presidential succession.
Section 11 of the Constitution designated the president of the National Assembly to complete the presidential term, Bédié was therefore legitimated and ran the term until October 1995.

The succession of Houphouet-Boigny leads to a confusion between the political powers.

On December 8, 1993 Alassane Ouattara issued a press release stating that he did not acknowledge Bédié as successor. But he was not followed by the military staff of the army headed by General Robert Guei.

December 9, he resigned after a deal with the new strongman, Bédié who became President of the Republic while waiting for new election.

– Year review of Alassane Ouattara

Appointed chairman of an interdepartmental committee, then in 1990 Prime Minister by Head of State Felix Houphouet-Boigny, to counter the Ivorian economy in crisis, Allassane Ouattara has totally failed in his mission.

In 1993, when he made the apron, Ouattara claimed that there was no money, « the officials might not receive their wages on time, » he had supported.
Also in his book-interview « The Paths of My Life, » released in May 1999 by Editions Plon, Henri Bedié Konan said openly that the work Allassane Ouattara, at the head of the Ivory Coast at the height of pressure on Houphouet Boigny by the IMF and the World Bank, is totally void.

A-4. Bédié and driving power

Bedié wants to reconnect with the authoritarianism of the regime but he faces opposition from an increasingly active around leaders like Laurent Gbagbo (Ivorian Popular Front) and Djenne Kobina of the Rally of Republicans (RDR – defector PDCI Houphouët).

After the death of the latter, Allassane Ouattara became the Leader of RDR.

Bedié emphasized the concept of « Ivority » to exclude Ouattara, from running for future presidential election and restricting the access of foreigners. On December 8, 1994 a new provision of the Electoral Code adopted by the National Assembly non-Ivorian African residents to vote. Article 49 of the text indicates that to be eligible for the Presidency of the Republic, one “must be born of father and mother themselves Ivorian by birth, must have never renounced Ivorian nationality and reside continuously Côte d’Ivoire during the five years preceding the election date, unless the Trust in international organizations.  »

However, the decline in economic growth and exacerbate political tension popular discontent.

In 1999, Ouattara had to leave hurriedly Ivory Coast due to judicial investigation, followed by international arrest warrant issued against him by Bedié.

Similarly, Bédié excluded many potential opponents from the army. In late 1999, a group of dissatisfied officers staged a military coup, putting General Robert Guéï (see Appendix 3) in power. Bédié fled into exile in France.

The 2000 presidential election, boycotted by some of the constituents takes place in a tense atmosphere. Applications of Alassane Ouattara (defect on administrative document forgery and non-Ivorian nationality) and Bédié (for non-medical) were discarded. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Laurent Gbagbo was invested President of the Republic.

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